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The synthesis, modification, structure, and biological activity in vivo of the 16α,17α- cycloalkanoprogesterone (pregna-D′-pentarane) analogues of progesterone are described. A possibility of separation of their biological functions has been demonstrated. A systematic synthesis of a set of uniform compounds that differ in a limited number of alterable parameters was developed. It resulted in an instrument useful for the investigation of pathways and mechanisms by which the steroid hormones fulfill their biological functions and for the probable discovery of new functions masked by the wide effects of native compounds.