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The hydrolysis of defatted cells of the marine bacterium Chryseobacterium scophtalmum CIP 104199T with 10% acetic acid (3 h, 100°C) led to an unusual lipid A (LA) (yield 0.6%), obtained for the first time. Using chemical analysis, FAB MS, and NMR spectroscopy, it was shown to be D-glucosamine 1-phosphate acylated with (R)-3-hydroxy-15-methylhexadecanoic and (R)-3-hydroxy-13-methyltetroadecanoic acids at the C2 and C3 atoms, respectively. It is similar to the monosaccharide biosynthetic precursor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), so-called lipid X (LX). Unlike LX, LA can be isolated by the treatment of bacteria with organic solvents only after the preliminary acidic hydrolysis of the cells, which suggests that LA might be strongly, probably chemically, linked to other components of the outer membrane. However, LPS cannot be such a component, because extraction with phenol-water or phenol-chloroform-petroleum ether mixtures in high yields (5.34% and 0.5%, respectively) leads to preparations that do not contain 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosonic acid, 3-hydroxyalkanoic acids, or LA.