Polyamines and Stress: Biological Role, Metabolism, and Regulation

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In this review, we consider recent advances in the study of the multifaceted biological role of polyamines, primarily under stress conditions, discuss molecular mechanisms controlling their anabolism, catabolism, and transport, and also the regulation of gene expression for key enzymes of their biosynthesis and degradation. To understand the place and role of polyamines in plant adaptation, we focus the data concerning gene expression obtained by modern physicochemical methods on mutant and transgenic plants and also on natural stress-tolerant species manifesting a high tolerance to salinity, drought, and other abiotic factors.

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