Cardiac Embryology and Molecular Mechanisms of Congenital Heart Disease: A Primer for Anesthesiologists

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(Abstracted from Anesth Analg, 123(3):551–569, 2016)

With the goal of improving an anesthesiologist’s understanding of congenital heart disease, this article reviews current information on genetic alterations and their cellular effects that cause abnormal heart development. Disruption of heart development in the embryo leads to congenital heart disease.

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