Little Black Boxes: Noncardiac Implantable Electronic Medical Devices and Their Anesthetic and Surgical Implications

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(Abstracted from Anesth Analg, 125(1):124–138, 2017)The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of 13 types of noncardiac implantable electronic medical devices (IEMDs) referred to here as “little black boxes.” This report provides an overview of their perioperative functioning in electromagnetic environments, such as operating room, gastrointestinal procedure suite, and imaging suite, where electromagnetic interference with the devices can lead to adverse patient outcomes.

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