Four-Year Follow-up of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Persons at Ultra-High Risk for Developing Psychosis: The Dutch Early Detection Intervention Evaluation (EDIE-NL) Trial

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Abstract

Background:

Previously, we demonstrated that cognitive behavior therapy for ultra-high risk (called CBTuhr) halved the incidence of psychosis over an 18-month period. Follow-up data from the same study are used to evaluate the longer-term effects at 4 years post-baseline.

Method:

The Dutch Early Detection and Intervention Evaluation study was a randomized controlled trial of 196 UHR patients comparing CBTuhr with treatment-as-usual (TAU) for comorbid disorders with TAU only. Of the original 196 patients, 113 consented to a 4-year follow-up (57.7%; CBTuhr = 56 vs TAU = 57). Over the study period, psychosis incidence, remission from UHR status, and the effects of transition to psychosis were evaluated.

Results:

The number of participants in the CBTuhr group making the transition to psychosis increased from 10 at 18-month follow-up to 12 at 4-year follow-up whereas it did not change in the TAU group (n = 22); this still represents a clinically important (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 12/22 = 0.55) and significant effect (F(1,5) = 8.09, P = .03), favoring CBTuhr. The odds ratio of CBTuhr compared to TAU was 0.44 (95% CI: 0.24–0.82) and the number needed to treat was 8. Moreover, significantly more patients remitted from their UHR status in the CBTuhr group (76.3%) compared with the TAU group (58.7%) [t(120) = 2.08, P = .04]. Importantly, transition to psychosis was associated with more severe psychopathology and social functioning at 4-year follow-up.

Conclusions:

CBTuhr to prevent a first episode of psychosis in persons at UHR of developing psychosis is still effective at 4-year follow-up. Our data also show that individuals meeting the formal criteria of a psychotic disorder have worse functional and social outcomes compared with non-transitioned cases. Trial registration: The trial is registered at Current Controlled Trials as trial number ISRCTN21353122 (http://controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN21353122/gaag).

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