Tracheobronchomalacia (TBM) refers to a weakening of the anterior tracheal rings leading to splaying and collapse of the central airways. In this report, we review the treatment of TBM, including preoperative workup, intraoperative anesthesia management, and surgical technique for posterior splinting tracheobronchoplasty. Imperative in the preoperative preparation is a stent trial in which an airway stent is placed to temporarily relieve the TBM and reassess for improvement in symptoms. Definitive therapy is then carried out with posterior splinting tracheoplasty or tracheobronchoplasty. Surgical results are generally excellent with the majority of patients having significant improvements in breathing.