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Cell adhesion has an essential role in regulating proliferation during the G sub 1 phase of the cell cycle, and loss of this adhesion requirement is a classic feature of oncogenic transformation.The appearance of cyclin A messenger RNA and protein in late G1 was dependent on cell adhesion in both NRK and NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. In contrast, the expression of Cdc2, Cdk2, cyclin D1, and cyclin E was independent of adhesion in both cell lines. Transfection of NRK cells with a cyclin A complementary DNA resulted in adhesionindependent accumulation of cyclin A protein and cyclin A-associated kinase activity. These transfected cells also entered S phase and complete multiple rounds of cell division in the absence of cell adhesion. Thus, cyclin A is a target of the adhesion-dependent signals that control cell proliferation.