Activation of the phospholipase D (PLD) pathway is a widespread response when cells are activated by agonists that bind receptors on the cell surface.A 16-kD cytosolic component can reconstitute guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-mediated activation of phospholipase D in HL60 cells depleted of their cytosol by permeabilization. This factor was purified and identified as two small GTP-binding proteins, ARF1 and ARF3. Recombinant ARF1 substituted for purified ARF proteins in the reconstitution assay. These results indicate that phospholipase D is a downstream effector of ARF1 and ARF3. The well-established role of ARF in vesicular traffic would suggest that alterations in lipid content by PLD are an important determinant in vesicular dynamics.