Femtotesla Magnetic Field Measurement with Magnetoresistive Sensors

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Abstract

The measurement of magnetic fields in the femtotesla (fT, 10−15 tesla) range is important for applications such as magnetometry, quantum computing, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, and magnetoencephalography. The only sensors capable of detecting these very small fields have been based on low-temperature superconducting quantum interference devices operating at 4.2 kelvin. We present a magnetic field sensor that combines a superconducting flux-to-field transformer with a low-noise giant magnetoresistive sensor. The sensor can be operated up to 77 kelvin. Our small-size prototype provides the capability of measuring 32 fT.

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