The evolutionarily conserved actin-related protein (Arp2/3) complex is a key component of actin filament networks that is dynamically regulated by nucleation-promoting and inhibitory factors. Although much is known about actin assembly, the physiologic functions of inhibitory proteins are unclear. We generated coronin 1−/− mice and found that coronin 1 exerted an inhibitory effect on cellular steady-state F-actin formation via an Arp2/3-dependent mechanism. Whereas coronin 1 was required for chemokine-mediated migration, it was dispensable for T cell antigen receptor functions in T cells. Moreover, actin dynamics, through a mitochondrial pathway, was linked to lymphocyte homeostasis.