The type III ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (RuBisCO) present in the archaeon Thermococcus kodakaraensis was found to participate in adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP) metabolism, a role that is distinct from that of classical RuBisCOs of the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle. Genes annotated as thymidine phosphorylase (deoA) and eucaryal translation initiation factor 2B (e2b2) were found to encode AMP phosphorylase and ribose-1,5-bisphosphate isomerase, respectively. These enzymes supplied the RuBisCO substrate, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate, from AMP and phosphate. Archaea with type III RuBisCOs all harbor both DeoA and the corresponding E2b2 homologs. In this pathway, adenine was released from AMP and the phosphoribose moiety entered central-carbon metabolism.