Plant resistance proteins detect the presence of specific pathogen effectors and initiate effector-triggered immunity. Few immune regulators downstream of resistance proteins have been identified, none of which are known virulence targets of effectors. We show thatArabidopsisENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1), a positive regulator of basal resistance and of effector-triggered immunity specifically mediated by Toll-interleukin-1 receptor-nucleotide binding-leucine-rich repeat (TIR-NB-LRR) resistance proteins, forms protein complexes with the TIR-NB-LRR disease resistance proteins RPS4 and RPS6 and with the negative immune regulator SRFR1 at a cytoplasmic membrane. Further, the cognate bacterial effectors AvrRps4 and HopAl disrupt these EDS1 complexes. Tight association of EDS1 with TIR-NB-LRR-mediated immunity may therefore derive mainly from being guarded by TIR-NB-LRR proteins, and activation of this branch of effector-triggered immunity may directly connect to the basal resistance signaling pathway via EDS1.