BILAYER GRAPHENE: Tunable fractional quantum Hall phases in bilayer graphene

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Symmetry-breaking in a quantum system often leads to complex emergent behavior. In bilayer graphene (BLG), an electric field applied perpendicular to the basal plane breaks the inversion symmetry of the lattice, opening a band gap at the charge neutrality point. In a quantizing magnetic field, electron interactions can cause spontaneous symmetry-breaking within the spin and valley degrees of freedom, resulting in quantum Hall effect (QHE) states with complex order. Here, we report fractional QHE states in BLG that show phase transitions that can be tuned by a transverse electric field. This result provides a model platform with which to study the role of symmetry-breaking in emergent states with topological order.

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