Stabilization of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) increases life span and health span in nematodes through an unknown mechanism. We report that neuronal stabilization of HIF1 mediates these effects inCaenorhabditis elegansthrough a cell nonautonomous signal to the intestine, which results in activation of the xenobiotic detoxification enzyme flavincontaining monooxygenase-2 (FMO-2). This prolongevity signal requires the serotonin biosynthetic enzyme TPH-1 in neurons and the serotonin receptor SER-7 in the intestine. Intestinal FMO-2 is also activated by dietary restriction (DR) and is necessary for DR-mediated life-span extension, which suggests that this enzyme represents a point of convergence for two distinct longevity pathways. FMOs are conserved in eukaryotes and induced by multiple life span-extending interventions in mice, which suggests that these enzymes may play a critical role in promoting health and longevity across phyla.