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A fundamental challenge in biological research is achieving an atomic-level description and mechanistic understanding of the function of biomolecules. Techniques for biomolecular simulations have undergone substantial developments, and their accuracy and scope have expanded considerably. Progress has been made through an increasingly tight integration of experiments and simulations, with experiments being used to refine simulations and simulations used to interpret experiments. Here we review the underpinnings of this progress, including methods for more efficient conformational sampling, accuracy of the physical models used, and theoretical approaches to integrate experiments and simulations. These developments are enabling detailed studies of complex biomolecular assemblies.