Spatiotemporal instabilities are widespread phenomena resulting from complexity and nonlinearity. In broad-area edge-emitting semiconductor lasers, the nonlinear interactions of multiple spatial modes with the active medium can result in filamentation and spatiotemporal chaos. These instabilities degrade the laser performance and are extremely challenging to control. We demonstrate a powerful approach to suppress spatiotemporal instabilities using wave-chaotic or disordered cavities. The interference of many propagating waves with random phases in such cavities disrupts the formation of self-organized structures such as filaments, resulting in stable lasing dynamics. Our method provides a general and robust scheme to prevent the formation and growth of nonlinear instabilities for a large variety of high-power lasers.