RNA modifications have recently emerged as critical posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression programs. They affect diverse eukaryotic biological processes, and the correct deposition of many of these modifications is required for normal development. Messenger RNA (mRNA) modifications regulate various aspects of mRNA metabolism. For example, N6-methyladenosine (m6A) affects the translation and stability of the modified transcripts, thus providing a mechanism to coordinate the regulation of groups of transcripts during cell state maintenance and transition. Similarly, some modifications in transfer RNAs are essential for RNA structure and function. Others are deposited in response to external cues and adapt global protein synthesis and gene-specific translational accordingly and thereby facilitate proper development.