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The synthesis of ultrasmall supported bimetallic nanoparticles (between 1 and 3 nanometers in diameter) with well-defined stoichiometry and intimacy between constituent metals remains a substantial challenge. We synthesized 10 different supported bimetallic nanoparticles via surface inorganometallic chemistry by decomposing and reducing surface-adsorbed heterometallic double complex salts, which are readily obtained upon sequential adsorption of target cations and anions on a silica substrate. For example, adsorption of tetraamminepalladium(II) [Pd(NH3)42+] followed by adsorption of tetrachloroplatinate [PtCl42−] was used to form palladium-platinum (Pd-Pt) nanoparticles. These supported bimetallic nanoparticles show enhanced catalytic performance in acetylene selective hydrogenation, which clearly demonstrates a synergistic effect between constituent metals.