Characterization of Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells from Patients with Active and Treated Paracoccidioidomycosis

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Cellular immune responses are a significant defence mechanism in human paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), an endemic mycosis in Latin America; however, little is known about the role of dendritic cells (DCs) in human PCM. We investigated monocyte-derived DCs from patients with treated (TP) and active PCM (AP) compared with healthy non-PCM donors (CO). DCs from the TP group showed higher expression of HLA-DR, CD86 and DC-SIGN compared with CO, whereas AP showed similar expression to CO. Production of IL-10 was downregulated by TNF-α in all groups and lower levels were observed in untreated DCs from AP compared with CO. Conversely, IL-12p40 was significantly upregulated in the DCs of the TP group. TNF-α-activated DCs from the CO group produced significantly lower levels of IL-12p40 when differentiated from magnetic-sorted monocytes (MACS) compared with adhered monocyte-derived DCs. This comparison in the TP group revealed similar levels of IL-12p40, suggesting a T cell–independent increase in the production of IL-12p40. Higher expression of surface molecules with increased IL-12p40 may indicate a better activation of DCs after the treatment of PCM. Our findings suggest that DCs may be crucial in the protective response to Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and that in vitro-generated DCs might be useful in enhancing antifungal immunity, especially during active PCM.

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