We evaluated inflammatory markers in febrile neutropenic lymphoma patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell support. Based on MASCC scores, our patients had a low risk of serious complications and a perspective of a benign initial clinical course of the febrile neutropenia. We also studied the impact of tobramycin given once versus three times daily on these immune markers. Sixty-one patients participating in a Norwegian multicentre prospective randomized clinical trial, comparing tobramycin once daily versus three times daily, given with penicillin G to febrile neutropenic patients, constituted a clinically homogenous group. Four patients had bacteraemia, all isolates being Gram-positive. Thirty-two patients received tobramycin once daily, and 29 patients received tobramycin three times daily. Blood samples were taken at the onset of febrile neutropenia and 1–2 days later. All samples were frozen at −70 °C and analysed at the end of the clinical trial for C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), complement activation products, mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and 17 cytokines. We found a mild proinflammatory response in this series of patients. CRP was non-specifically elevated. Ten patients with decreased MBL levels showed the same mild clinical and proinflammatory response. Patients receiving tobramycin once daily showed a more pronounced proinflammatory response compared with patients receiving tobramycin three times daily. Overall, febrile neutropenic cancer patients with a benign clinical course show a mild proinflammatory immune response.