High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), a ubiquitous nuclear DNA-binding protein, functions as a potent proinflammatory factor. In this study, we evaluated the effects of HMGB1 inhibition on murine lupus using the lupus-prone model. We treated male BXSB mice with neutralizing anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody (HMGB1 mAb) from age 16 weeks to 26 weeks. The control group received the same amount of control IgG. Lupus-prone male BXSB mice treated with HMGB1mAb showed attenuated proteinuria, glomerulonephritis, circulating anti-dsDNA and immune complex deposition. Levels of serum IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17 and IL-18 were also significantly decreased by administration of HMGB1mAb in lupus-prone BXSB mice. HMGB1mAb treatment also decreased the caspase-1 activity in the kidneys of BXSB mice and reduced the mouse mortality. Our study supports that HMGB1 inhibition alleviates lupus-like disease in BXSB mice and might be a potential treatment option for human SLE.