Early pregnancy factor and mitochondrial chaperonin 10 have very different functions within mammals but the mature peptides have identical amino acid sequences. In order to understand the mechanisms by which identical proteins can have different functions and sites of activity, we have examined genomic DNA which could encode the protein. In most species studied, there is a large gene family of at least ten members with homology to the DNA sequence for this protein. Using a monochromosomal somatic cell hybrid panel, we have mapped the gene for human chaperonin 10 to chromosome 2. Other members of the human gene family map to several chromosomes. Chromosomes 1, 2 and 9 contain pseudogenes with Alu insertions while chromosome 16 has a pseudogene containing a short direct repeat flanking an insert. Chromosomes 1 and 16 may also carry a functional intronless copy of the EPF/Cpn10 sequence.