Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) have emerged as important causes of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), and these infections are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Dialysis patients have been particularly affected by these pathogens, with colonization and infection rates often exceeding those seen in persons with other types of healthcare exposure. The infection control practices that are currently recommended for use in dialysis facilities and other healthcare settings have the potential to eliminate, or at least substantially reduce transmission of and infection with MDROs. Unfortunately, recent data suggest that these recommended practices are not consistently implemented. Additional efforts and research are needed to increase healthcare workers' awareness of and adherence to infection prevention measures, to develop new and more effective prevention strategies, and to determine cost-effective approaches to MDRO prevention to optimize the safety and quality of care provided to dialysis patients.