Individuals engaged in a profession are expected to participate in continuing education (CE) to acquire updated knowledge and skills that in turn ensure patient safety. State licensing boards are charged with protecting the safety (including that related to health care) of individuals residing in the state. To this end, most of the state licensing boards involved in regulating the practice of audiology have implemented varying degrees of mandatory CE. This article provides a systematic review of data examining the relationships among mandatory CE, practitioner knowledge and behavior, and patient outcomes. This article also discusses contemporary issues in audiology CE in light of the evidence from the systematic review.