We are entering a new era for the management of hemodialysis grafts and fistulae. The hallmark of this new era will be the use of quantitative, hemodynamic parameters to optimize vascular access function and improve the results of our endovascular interventions. The implementation of vascular access surveillance programs has not only decreased the incidence of vascular access thrombosis, but also has provided new insights into the hemodynamic performance of grafts and fistulae. The measurement and analysis of intra-access blood flow has proven useful for the early detection of developing stenosis, and also provides a quantitative method to assess the results of our endovascular interventions. In the future, the use of quantitative hemodynamic measurements will play an increasingly important role in our evaluation and treatment of hemodialysis grafts and fistulae.