|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are high-flow vascular anomalies that have demonstrated a very high recurrence rate after endovascular treatment, surgical treatment, or a combination of both. Surgical treatments have shown good response when they are small and well localized but a poor response when diffuse. A better understanding of the nature of the lesion has led to a better response rate and a safer treatment for these patients. This has been accomplished through a detailed understanding of the angioarchitecture of the lesion, enabling a tailored approach in reaching and targeting the nidus of the AVM with different liquid embolic agents, more specifically ethanol. Flow reduction techniques help in exposing the nidus to sclerosant agents. A clinical classification, the Schobinger classification, will help determine the appropriate time to start or to pursue therapy.