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There is substantial variability at international, national, and regional levels in how effective dialysis providers are in the implementation of well-accepted interventions to deliver better health outcomes at reduced costs to payers. The growing number of dialysis patients within a finite pool of resources has led to searches for more efficient methods to provide patient care without compromising or diminishing quality. We review here some contemporary concepts surrounding quality improvement and operations research that may provide clinician administrators to both improve efficiency and quality in facility based hemodialysis units. The creation of balanced scorecards, utilization of process mapping techniques, and the application of LEAN principles may readily improve how hemodialysis care is delivered in an environment of increasing patient volumes and reduced operating resources.