|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
Viral respiratory infections cause significant morbidity and mortality in infants and young children as well as in at-risk adults and the elderly. Although many viral pathogens are capable of causing respiratory disease, vaccine development has to focus on a limited number of pathogens, such as those that commonly cause serious lower respiratory illness (LRI). Whereas influenza virus vaccines have been available for some time (see the review by Clark and Lynch in this issue), vaccines against other medically important viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), the parainfluenza viruses (PIVs), and metapneumovirus (MPVs) are not available. This review aims to provide a brief update on investigational vaccines against RSV, the PIVs, and MPV that have been evaluated in clinical trials or are currently in clinical development.