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Pulmonary malignancies are a major source of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected persons. Non-AIDS-defining lung cancers (mostly non-small cell lung cancers) are now a leading cause of cancer death among HIV-infected persons. HIV-associated factors appear to affect the risk of lung cancer and may adversely impact cancer treatment and outcomes. HIV infection also may modify the potential harms and benefits of lung cancer screening with computed tomography. AIDS-defining lung malignancies include pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma and pulmonary lymphoma, both of which are less prevalent with widespread adoption of antiretroviral therapy.