|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
Sarcoidosis is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease which is histopathologically characterized by the presence of noncaseating granulomas. When the extent of the disease is limited, without endangering the function of affected organs, clinical observation can be sufficient given that in a majority of cases, inflammation will subside with time. In more advanced sarcoidosis, especially when one or more specific organs are threatened, immunomodulatory treatment, of which steroids are the key element, over a prolonged period of time, in general, may attenuate disease activity. Treatment-refractory sarcoidosis (due to the lack of efficacy, drug toxicity or intolerability) may be progressive and, although infrequent, can result in end-stage organ failure. In these selected cases, solid organ transplantation (SOT) should be considered. In this article, SOT is positioned within the organ-specific treatment of systemic sarcoidosis and data on outcome after transplantation are discussed.