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Thromboembolic complications are leading causes of both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. To reduce the incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in pregnancy and improve outcomes, a wider understanding of the risk factors involved and better identification of women at risk of thrombosis are required. Optimal management of thromboembolic disease, both to prevent VTE and to avoid recurrence of pregnancy complications such as miscarriage, centers on the use of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH). LMWHs, such as enoxaparin and dalteparin, have clinical and practical advantages compared with unfractionated heparin in terms of improved safety (significantly lower incidence of osteoporosis, thrombocytopenia, and possibly allergic skin reactions) and the potential for outpatient treatment of acute VTE. However, many unanswered questions remain, including who to treat, how to treat them, and when to treat in the case of patients with thrombophilia and a history of previous pregnancy complications.