Possibilities and limitations of current stereo-endoscopy

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Stereo-endoscopy has become a commonly used technology. In many comparative studies striking advantages of stereo-endoscopy over two-dimensional presentation could not be proven. To show the potential and fields for further improvement of this technology is the aim of this article.


The physiological basis of three-dimensional vision limitations of current stereo-endoscopes is discussed and fields for further research are indicated. New developments in spatial picture acquisition and spatial picture presentation are discussed.


Current limitations of stereo-endoscopy that prevent a better ranking in comparative studies with two-dimensional presentation are mainly based on insufficient picture acquisition.


Devices for three-dimensional picture presentation are at a more advanced developmental stage than devices for three-dimensional picture acquisition. Further research should emphasize the development of new devices for three-dimensional picture acquisition.

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