Vascular dementia is a term used to describe a constellation of cognitive and functional impairment that can be viewed as a subset of the larger syndrome of vascular cognitive impairment associated with cerebrovascular brain injury. Vascular dementia is a common disorder among the elderly, although it can also occur in younger persons. Comprising 20% of all cases of dementia in the United States, vascular dementia is the second most common form of dementia after Alzheimer's disease. Patients with vascular dementia often exhibit mood and behavioral changes and may have focal neurological signs on neurological examination. Primary treatment is through primary or secondary modification of cerebrovascular risk factors such as hypertension, although symptomatic treatments with cholinesterase inhibitors have shown modest symptomatic benefit.