As the population ages, the prevalence of many neurologic diseases is increasing. At the same time, older patients are undergoing more surgical procedures. This confluence of events puts neurohospitalists in a unique position to provide both pre- and postoperative guidance to minimize complications, improve clinical outcomes, and decrease health care costs in patients with neurologic comorbidities. Early preoperative consultation is recommended for patients with severe, poorly controlled, or decompensated neurologic disease, a recent stroke, or those undergoing procedures with a high risk of neurologic complications. The neurohospitalist's role includes optimizing management of preexisting diseases, such as epilepsy, neuromuscular disorders, Parkinson's disease, dementia, and cerebrovascular disease, as well as providing guidance for perioperative management and clarification of risks. In the postoperative period, the neurohospitalist will frequently be consulted to mitigate any negative impact of neurologic complications that do occur.