Neurologic disorders contribute significantly to both morbidity and mortality among children in resource-limited settings, but there are a few succinct studies summarizing the epidemiology of neurologic disorders in these settings. A review of available literature was performed to identify data on the prevalence, etiology, outcomes, and treatment of neurologic disorders in children in resource-limited settings. The burden of neurologic disorders in children is high in resource-limited settings. Barriers to optimal care include lack of trained personnel, limited access to diagnostic technology, and limited availability of drugs used to treat common conditions. Several solutions have been suggested to deal with these challenges including increased collaborations to train neurologists willing to practice in resource-limited settings and increased training of physician extenders or community health workers. Further studies are necessary to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of neurologic disorders in resource-limited settings. Future epidemiologic studies should incorporate multiple countries in resource-limited settings and utilize standardized definitions and methodologies to enable comparison across regions.