Continuing medical education (CME) is designed to keep physicians up-to-date on ever-changing practices and guidelines to provide patients with high quality care. CME is especially important in the field of neurology due to rapidly evolving knowledge and medical advances, and is a required element of maintenance of certification. CME itself has evolved from a passive, didactic approach to a learner-centered approach which utilizes new technologies, online learning, and simulations. CME improves knowledge, skills, and, to a lesser extent, patient outcomes, with multimodal, interactive interventions found to be most effective in teaching health care professionals. However, little data are available on CME in neurology. There is a significant gap in knowledge about CME interventions that work for neurologists. Rigorous education research, as well as making effective CME interventions more readily available to neurologists, is critical to optimize lifelong learning of physicians in the field of neurology.