Development and Validation of the Perception of Distributed Effort in Team Sports Questionnaire (DETSQ)

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Underpinned by the team cognition perspective, we present the Perception of Distributed Effort in Team Sports Questionnaire (DETSQ). To examine the multidimensional conceptualization of perceived distributed effort in team sports (Beniscelli, Tenenbaum, Schinke, & Torregrosa, 2014), we conducted three studies aimed at developing the DETSQ. In Study 1, we generated items and obtained evidence of content and substantive validity. Consistent with the conceptual framework, we selected the items to reflect three forms of perceived effort: physical, psychological, and tactical. In Study 2, we ran a series of exploratory structural equation models (SEMs)to refine the DETSQ internal structure using the responses from 257 team sport athletes. The result was a 13-item, 3-factor model. In Study 3, we further examined the internal validity of the questionnaire, along with its reliability; measurement invariance across gender, age, and competitive level; and the convergent and consequential aspects of construct validity. The analyses provided evidence to support the psychometric properties of the DETSQ. The discussion focuses on the implication of the DETSQ for processes involving team cognition and suggestions for further research on the perception of distributed effort in team sports.

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