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Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common hormonal condition with reproductive, metabolic, and psychological sequelae. The Rotterdam Criteria are now internationally accepted, with different phenotypes recognized with varying clinical presentations and risk profiles. The complexity of the disorder, and the impact on quality of life, requires timely diagnosis, screening for complications and management strategies. PCOS remains underdiagnosed and women experience significant delays to diagnosis. Effective dissemination of evidence-based management is therefore vital. In this review, we summarize key aspects of PCOS as a prelude to this issue of Seminars in Reproductive Medicine on PCOS which focuses on the development of the international evidence-based guideline on the assessment and management of PCOS and the related translation program. We cover diagnostic criteria, prevalence, phenotypes, reproductive, metabolic, and psychological factors of PCOS. We also cover management strategies including lifestyle interventions as well as treatment of nonreproductive outcomes and reproductive outcomes informed by the latest international evidence-based guidelines.