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Central venous catheters are essential to the modern-day management of many illnesses especially cancer and hematologic disorders. Catheter malfunction due to catheter tip thrombosis and catheter-related central venous thrombosis are two common complications seen with the frequent use of long-term central venous catheters. These two complications can cause significant problems in patient management and can be a source of morbidity and occasional mortality. This review focuses on the incidence, risk factors, natural history, diagnostic approaches, prophylaxis and treatment of thrombotic complications of central venous catheters in cancer patients.