Platelet Factor 4: An Inhibitor of Angiogenesis

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Platelet factor 4 (PF4) is an antiangiogenic ELR-negative chemokine. PF4 inhibits endothelial cell proliferation and migration and angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Three different mechanisms have been proposed to explain PF4's antiangiogenic effects. First, PF4 may bind proteoglycans and interfere with the proteoglycan-bystander effect on growth factor activity. Second, PF4 is able to interact directly with angiogenesis growth factors such as fibroblast growth factors or vascular endothelial growth factors and inhibits their interaction with cell surface receptors. Third, PF4 may activate cell surface receptors on endothelial cells and induce inhibitory signals. Recently, one such receptor, CXCR3-B, was identified. In cardiovascular disease, PF4 may possibly intervene in collateral vessel formation, plaque neovascularization, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and stent endothelialization. Several PF4 fragments such as PF4-CTF and modified molecules have been made that exhibit antiangiogenesis properties and may serve as leads for further therapeutic development.

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