Factor IX Gene (F9)Genotyping Trends and Spectrum of Mutations Identified: A Reference Laboratory Experience

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Abstract

In hemophilia B (HB), factor IX gene (F9) genotyping is used for molecular confirmation of affected individuals, for carrier testing, to facilitate the identification of those at risk for anaphylaxis/inhibitors (associated with large deletions), and to assist in assigning disease severity. Owing to test costs, optimal test utilization involves pre/post-test counseling and appropriate patient and test selection (e.g., mutation screening [F9 MS] vs. known mutation [F9 KM] testing). This article aims to review the trends and outcomes of F9 -genotyping orders and describe the spectrum of variants identified in a sample of individuals in our reference laboratory. We performed a retrospective review of consecutive orders submitted to the Special Coagulation DNA Diagnostic Laboratory, Mayo Clinic, between 2012 and 2015. A total of 133 orders (38%) were identified for men: 118 (88%) were F9 MS and 15 (12%) were F9 KM. Thirteen orders (10%) were cancelled. A total of 209 orders were identified for women: 178 (85%) were F9 MS and 31 (15%) were F9 KM. Thirty-seven orders (18%) were cancelled and 30% of the tests performed yielded negative results. A total of 164 samples (47%) were received without clinical information. Seventeen previously unreported variants were identified. F9 genotyping provides useful information for HB management; however, 18% of our orders were cancelled and almost half were received without relevant clinical information, thus reaffirming the need for ongoing scrutiny of submitted orders. Optimal patient and test selection is important as is the accurate interpretation of variants identified. Most of the pathogenic variants identified were point mutations, with very few large deletions, consistent with the literature.

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