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To explore whether HIV serostatus (HIV-1, HIV-2, and dual (HIV-D) reactivity) and CD4 cell count affect human papillomavirus (HPV) in two groups of women from Cote d'Ivoire.We conducted a cross sectional study of two groups of women. One group had low numbers of lifetime sex partners (maternal women, n=258) and were enrolled based on HIV serostatus. The other group had high numbers of sex partners (female sex workers, n=278) and all consenting self identified sex workers were admitted to this study. We collected epidemiological and clinical data, and cervicovaginal lavage for HPV testing.The groups had different distributions of HIV seroreactivity, but the rates of HPV DNA detection were similar. Most of the HPV DNAs detected in both groups were high risk types. A strong association of high risk HPV DNA and HIV-1 seropositivity was found in both maternal women (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 7.5 (95% CI 3.2-17.4)) and in sex workers (OR 5.0 (2.1-12.0)). The maternal group also showed an association of high risk HPV DNA detection with HIV-2 (OR 3.7 (1.6-8.5)) and HIV-D (OR 12.7 (4.3-37.5)) that was not observed in the sex workers. In addition, the association of high risk HPV DNA with HIV-1 in the maternal group was independent of low CD4 cell count, while in the sex workers the association depended on CD4 cell counts 6/l.We found that an association between HPV and HIV varied depending on the sexual behaviour and CD4 cell count of the population examined.