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To assess the prevalence and reasons for non-use of condoms among the Hong Kong Chinese population and obtain baseline data to monitor sexual behavioural change.Cross sectional self administered questionnaire surveys in convenience sampled groups of Hong Kong Chinese residents were carried out.Of the 1508 respondents, 24% reported consistent condom use and 76% inconsistent use. Overall, 17% of respondents reported having sex with strangers. People who were at increased risk for inconsistent condom use included STD clinics attendees, those who never married, and those reporting low self efficacy for condom use or sex with strangers. Common reasons for not using condoms were trust in partner, use of other contraceptives, and reduced sensation while using condoms.Given the reported high prevalence of travel and sexual contact with strangers, and misconceptions about condoms among the Hong Kong Chinese population, innovative condom social marketing campaigns are needed. Periodic monitoring of condom use behaviours should be an integral part of HIV/STD surveillance activity.