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Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mimics many of the effects of septic shock. LPS-induced death has been attributed to systemic hypotension, hyporeactiveness to vasoconstrictors, metabolic acidosis, and organ damage. However, there is no research directed to the involvement of the baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) in LPS-induced death. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of BRS on the survival time after lethal LPS challenge. Four groups of rats were used. Each rat received an equivalent dose of intravenous LPS (50 mg/kg). It was found that the anesthetized sinoaortic-denervated (SAD) rats (representative of the lowest BRS, BRS = 0.022 ± 0.015 ms/mmHg) survived the shortest time (36 ± 11.1 min). The conscious SAD rats (BRS = 0.198 ± 0.035 ms/mmHg) and the anesthetized sham-operated rats (BRS = 0.304 ± 0.072 ms/mmHg) were alive a relatively long time (101 ± 11.5 min and 110 ± 12.4 min, respectively). The conscious sham-operated rats (BRS = 0.943 ± 0.097 ms/mmHg) survived the longest time (148 ± 6.5 min). These results demonstrated that arterial baroreflex function determined the survival time in the LPS-induced lethal shock.