HEAT SHOCK STRESS AMELIORATES CYTOKINE MIXTURE-INDUCED PERMEABILITY BY DOWNREGULATING THE NITRIC OXIDE AND SIGNAL TRANSDUCER AND ACTIVATOR OF TRANSCRIPTION PATHWAYS IN CACO-2 CELLS

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Abstract

ABSTRACT

Proinflammatory cytokines are known to impair intestinal barrier function and to activate signaling pathways, whereas heat shock responses prevent cytokine-induced mucosal damage. We hypothesized that heat shock response blocks the effects of proinflammatory cytokines by regulating nitric oxide (NO) production and the activities of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway. A monolayer of Caco-2 cells were pretreated with sodium arsenite (SA, 500 μmol/L) for 1 h, followed by a 1-h recovery, and then stimulated with a cytokine mixture (cytomix: tumor necrosis factor α [10 ng/mL], interferon beta [1000 U/mL], and interleukin [IL] 1β [1 ng/mL]) for 24 h. The permeability of horseradish peroxidase and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated Dextran and transepithelial resistance and potential difference were measured in Ussing chambers. Interleukin-6, IL-8, NO, inducible NO synthase mRNA, STAT activity, and suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) expression were measured in medium or cell lysates. Cytomix resulted in increased epithelial permeability of both fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated Dextran and horseradish peroxidase; whereas treatment of Caco-2 cells with SA 500 μmol/L blocked the cytomix-induced permeability changes. In addition, SA treatment decreased cytomix-induced NO production and inducible NO synthase mRNA expression and decreased the levels of STAT1, STAT3, SOCS1, and SOCS3. The SA treatment also decreased cytomix-induced IL-6 and IL-8 production in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, cytomix increased epithelial permeability, which is associated with increased NO and STAT activities. The SA treatment ameliorated cytomix-induced permeability, possibly through the downregulation of the NO and Janus kinase/STAT pathways.

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