Critical illness, such as sepsis or septic shock with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in intensive care units. The complexity of critical illness requires a robust methodology to explore the underlying mechanisms. Proteomics represents a powerful postgenomic biotechnology used for simultaneous examination of a large number of proteins or the proteome. Recent progress in proteomic techniques allows thorough evaluation of molecular changes associated with critical illness, thereby permitting to identify novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets. This review provides an update on the recent progress and potential of rapidly evolving proteomics approach to facilitate new discoveries in the field of critical care medicine.