Microvascular responses to blood volume restitution using red blood cells (RBCs) with modified hemoglobin (Hb) oxygen affinity were studied in the hamster window chamber model during resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock. Allosteric effectors inositol hexaphosphate and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural were introduced into the RBCs by electroporation to decrease and increase Hb-oxygen affinity. In vitro P50s (partial pressure of oxygen at 50% Hb saturation) were modified to 10 and 50 mmHg (normal P50, 32 mmHg). Awake hamsters were subjected to hemorrhage of 50% of blood volume, followed by a shock period of 1 h, and then resuscitated with 25% blood volume with high or low P50 RBCs (hematocrit, 50%). After resuscitation, base excess was significantly lower than baseline in the high-P50 RBC group (HP50; 0.3 ± 2 vs. 5.0 ± 1.7 mM) and MAP was lower than baseline in the low-P50 RBC group (LP50; 93 ± 6 vs. 109 ± 6 mM). Arteriolar diameter and flow were significantly lower in the HP50. Functional capillary density in the HP50 was significantly lower than LP50 at 60 and 90 min after resuscitation. There was no significantly difference in arteriolar PO2. Tissue PO2, venular PO2, and oxygen delivery were higher in LP50 than in HP50. There was no significant difference in oxygen extraction. Oxygen extraction ratio (oxygen extraction/oxygen delivery) × 100 was significantly higher in HP50 than in LP50. These results suggest that lowering blood P50 in resuscitation provides improved microvascular function in comparison with higher P50.