SVO: Effects of Fluid Infusion and Dobutamine on Hemodynamics, Inflammatory Response, and Cardiovascular Oxidative Stress2: Effects of Fluid Infusion and Dobutamine on Hemodynamics, Inflammatory Response, and Cardiovascular Oxidative Stress-Guided Resuscitation for Experimental Septic Shock: Effects of Fluid Infusion and Dobutamine on Hemodynamics, Inflammatory Response, and Cardiovascular Oxidative Stress

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Abstract

The pathogenetic mechanisms associated to the beneficial effects of mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2)–guided resuscitation during sepsis are unclear. Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of an algorithm of SvO2-driven resuscitation including fluids, norepinephrine and dobutamine on hemodynamics, inflammatory response, and cardiovascular oxidative stress during a clinically resembling experimental model of septic shock. Eighteen anesthetized and catheterized pigs (35–45 kg) were submitted to peritonitis by fecal inoculation (0.75 g/kg). After hypotension, antibiotics were administered, and the animals were randomized to two groups: control (n = 9), with hemodynamic support aiming central venous pressure 8 to 12 mmHg, urinary output 0.5 mL/kg per hour, and mean arterial pressure greater than 65 mmHg; and SvO2 (n = 9), with the goals above, plus SvO2 greater than 65%. The interventions lasted 12 h, and lactated Ringer’s and norepinephrine (both groups) and dobutamine (SvO2 group) were administered. Inflammatory response was evaluated by plasma concentration of cytokines, neutrophil CD14 expression, oxidant generation, and apoptosis. Oxidative stress was evaluated by plasma and myocardial nitrate concentrations, myocardial and vascular NADP(H) oxidase activity, myocardial glutathione content, and nitrotyrosine expression. Mixed venous oxygen saturation–driven resuscitation was associated with improved systolic index, oxygen delivery, and diuresis. Sepsis induced in both groups a significant increase on IL-6 concentrations and plasma nitrate concentrations and a persistent decrease in neutrophil CD14 expression. Apoptosis rate and neutrophil oxidant generation were not different between groups. Treatment strategies did not significantly modify oxidative stress parameters. Thus, an approach aiming SvO2 during sepsis improves hemodynamics, without any significant effect on inflammatory response and oxidative stress. The beneficial effects associated with this strategy may be related to other mechanisms.

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