Effects of Small-Volume Hypertonic Saline on Acid-Base and Electrolytes Balance in Rats With Peritonitis-Induced Sepsis

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Our previous study has demonstrated that hypertonic saline (HS) given at 3 h after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) surgery alleviates circulatory failure, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, and mortality rate in rats. However, only few data exist on the application of HS in acid-base and electrolyte imbalance of sepsis. In addition, early one-dose HS administration seems to have only modest improvement on mortality rate. Thus, we evaluated the effects of HS on acid-base equilibrium and electrolyte balance in CLP-induced sepsis model and further compared with the effects of two- and one-dose HS administration. Male Wistar rats received CLP or sham operation followed by the administration of saline or HS (7.5% NaCl, 4 mL/kg, intravenously at 3 and 9 h after laparotomy or CLP). The changes in hemodynamics, biochemical variables, blood gas, electrolytes, organ histology, and plasma levels of nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) were examined during the 18-h observation. Hypertonic saline given either at 3 h (one-dose administration) or at 3 and 9 h (two-dose administration) after CLP attenuated circulatory failure, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, metabolic acidosis, hyperkalemia, neutrophil infiltration, and 18-h mortality. Moreover, both one- and two-dose HS administrations significantly diminished plasma NO and IL-1β levels in CLP rats. However, only the two-dose HS administration significantly improved hyponatremia and hypocalcemia in septic rats. Beneficial effects of HS in septic rats may be attributed to not only reducing plasma levels of NO and IL-1β, but also improving metabolic acidosis and electrolyte imbalance. In addition, two-dose HS administration could reverse electrolyte imbalance caused by CLP.

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